Indonesia is an archipelago that stretches between 6 degrees north latitude to 11 degrees south latitude, and from 97 degrees to 141 degrees east longitude. Indonesia’s territory extends along 3.977 miles and located between two continents, Asia and Australia / Oceania, as well as between the two oceans that are the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Indonesia has 17,508 islands with five major islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (the third largest island in the world), Sulawesi and Papua.
Indonesia is a democratic country who proclaim themselves on August 17, 1945 with the basic state is Pancasila with 5 basic interrelated and inseparable, namely:
1. Belief in one almighty God
2. Fair and civilized humanity.
3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Led by the populist wisdom in consultative / representative
5. Social justice for all Indonesian people
Flag of Indonesia were Red and White which are rectangular with width size 2 / 3 (two-thirds) from the length of the top is red and the rest of the bottom is white. Both parts have the same size. The Red and White or also known as The Color Duo, has a philosophical meaning, red means brave and white means pure. Red symbolizes the human body, while white symbolizes the human soul. Both are complementary and perfect for Indonesia.
Indonesia’s national anthem is Indonesia Raya, which is an expression and spark national ideals of Indonesia citizens. This anthem is a work of a nation who called Wage Rudolph Supratman.
Indonesia has hundreds ethnic groups with a diversity of culture and custom. Tribes are renowned among others were Batak, Minangkabau, Javanese, Sundanese, Dayak, Bugis, Bedouin, Asmat, Tengger, and so forth. To unite them in a country, then the motto of Indonesia is “Bhineka Tunggal Ika” which means unity in diversity, although diverse, but still one, namely Indonesia.
State of Indonesia is a law country with the form of unity which was republic and presidential system of government. The President is the head of state and head of government, in carrying out its duties the president is assisted by a Vice President whose position as a president assistant at the top of the ministers who are also a presidential aide. The head of state domiciled in the state capital, Jakarta.
Indonesia divided into provinces and each of the provinces and cities divided into districts governed by a separate law on the formation of the area.
Local government consists of Local Government and Regional Representatives Council / Parliament who are representative institution of local people and both elements of regional governance. Local governments have the power to regulate and manage their own affairs according to the principles of autonomy and governance assistance tasks. Local governments also have the right set of local regulations and other regulations to implement autonomy and duty of assistance. Local governments have the right to run broad autonomy except on foreign policy affairs, defense, security, judicial, fiscal, monetary, and religion.
According to Indonesia’s geographical location in the vicinity of the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate that consists of two season’s namely dry and rainy season. The dry season lasts from April to September. The dry season is the driest season with an average temperature of 29-32 Celsius degrees. And the rainy season has high rainfall with an average temperature of 25-26 Celsius degrees.
Remembering that Indonesia is an archipelago which has a lot of sea area which resulted in high evaporation of sea water, so Indonesia in general has high humidity.
Broadly inhabitants of Indonesia may be divided into two clumps of Malay in the western part of Indonesia and Papua clumps that have roots in the islands of eastern Melanesia. Many of Indonesia’s population who declare themselves as part of a more specific clusters of ethnic groups which is divided by language and region of origin, such as Javanese, Sundanese, or Batak ethnic.
There was also a minority of migrants who include Chinese, Indian, and Arabic ethnics. Their ancestors had come to the archipelago with trade routes since the 8th century BC which is partially settled and become part of the archipelago. In Indonesia there are about 3% populations of Chinese ethnic. These numbers vary because only in the 1930′s was the last time the government conducts a census to classify people of Indonesia into the tribes and descendants.
Islam is a religion embraced by the majority of which approximately 85.2% of Indonesia’s population, this making Indonesia as the country with biggest population of Muslims (adherents of Islam) in the world. The rest of population has religion such as Protestant (8.9%), Catholic (3%), Hindu (1.8%), Buddhist (0.8%), and others (0.3%).
Most of Indonesia’s population speaks the local language as mother tongue, but the official language is Indonesian language which taught in all schools in the country and controlled by almost the entire population of Indonesia. Indonesian language is one of the nation’s unifying tools as outlined in the Youth Pledge which is a pledge of Indonesian youths from various ethnic groups which said before Indonesia’s independence from the colonizers on October 28th of 1928. The contents of the oath are “One mother country, Indonesia’s country, one nation, the Indonesian nation, and speaking one language, the Indonesian language.”