World Heritage in Indonesia

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UNESCO has a special program called the World Heritage Center to document various cultural and natural sites, or a mixture of both, and its adoption as a world heritage.

Cultural and natural heritage are among the priceless asset and irreplaceable, not only for the nation, but of humanity as a whole. Losses, such as damage or loss, from one of the most valuable assets is a loss for all the nations of the world. Part of that heritage, because of their exceptional quality, can be considered to have outstanding universal value, thus the object is worthy of special protection against the dangers which increasingly threaten the existence of legacy.

Until now world heritage list includes 936 properties that are considered to have outstanding universal value, which consists of 725 pieces of cultural heritage, 183 natural heritages, and 28 mixes between cultural and natural heritages in 153 countries. As of November 2011, 188 States Parties have ratified the World Heritage Convention. Indonesia has seven heritage objects, namely:
1. Borobudur Temple Compounds (Cultural Site)
2. Komodo National Park (Natural Site)
3. Prambanan Temple Compounds (Cultural Site)
4. Ujung Kulon National Park (Natural Site)
5. Sangiran Early Man Site (Cultural Site)
6. Lorentz National Park (Natural Site)
7. Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Natural Site in danger)

Prior to becoming a world heritage, each object must go first to the tentative list. Tentative List is an inventory of the property or object is located in the region of each country. State proposer considers these objects deserve to be the inscription on the World Heritage List. Therefore, in the tentative list of each state must provide reasons why an object is regarded as a cultural heritage that they intend to nominate as a heritage site in the coming year.

Until now the number of objects included in the tentative list is 1504 objects from 162 countries. Based on the Unesco website (unfortunately last revised on October 6, 2009) Indonesia has included 27 objects in the list, namely:

1.    Banda Islands (07/02/2005)
2.    Banten Ancient City (19/10/1995)
3.    Bawomataluo Site (06/10/2009)
4.    Belgica Fort (19/10/1995)
5.    Besakih (19/10/1995)
6.    Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo) (02/02/2004)
7.    Bunaken National Park (07/02/2005)
8.    Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (18/01/2007)
9.    Derawan Islands (07/02/2005)
10.    Elephant Cave (19/10/1995)
11.    Great Mosque of Demak (19/10/1995)
12.    Gunongan Historical Park (19/10/1995)
13.    Muara Takus Compound Site (06/10/2009)
14.    Muarajambi Temple Compound (06/10/2009)
15.    Ngada traditional house and megalithic complex (19/10/1995)
16.    Penataran Hindu Temple Complex (19/10/1995)
17.    Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep (06/10/2009)
18.    Pulau Penyengat Palace Complex (19/10/1995)
19.    Raja Ampat Islands (07/02/2005)
20.    Ratu Boko Temple Complex (19/10/1995)
21.    Sukuh Hindu Temple (19/10/1995)
22.    Taka Bonerate National Park (07/02/2005)
23.    Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement (06/10/2009)
24.    Trowulan – Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom (06/10/2009)
25.    Wakatobi National Park (07/02/2005)
26.    Waruga Burial Complex (19/10/1995)
27.    Yogyakarta Palace Complex (19/10/1995)

In addition to cultural heritage objects, Unesco world heritage also have another category, it is non-object cultural heritage. According to UNESCO, the cultural heritage is not only limited to monuments and collections of objects only. It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from ancestors to descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festivals, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts. Until now, Indonesia has had 5 objects intangible world heritage, namely:
1. Batik, including batik education and training (2009)
2. Angklung (2010)
3. Wayang (2008)
4. Keris (2008)
5. Tari Saman (Saman Dance) (2011)

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